Marconi, V. I., S. Candia, P. Balenzuela, H. Pastoriza, D. Domínguez, and P. Martinoli. "Orientational pinning and transverse voltage: Simulations and experiments in square Josephson junction arrays." Phys. Rev. B 62, no. 6 (2000): 4096–4104.
Abstract: We study the dependence of the transport properties of square Josephson Junctions arrays with the direction of the applied dc current, both experimentally and numerically. We present computational simulations of currentvoltage curves at finite temperatures for a single vortex in an array of $L\times L$ junctions ($Ha^2/?_0=f=1/L^2$), and experimental measurements in $100\times1000$ arrays under a low magnetic field corresponding to $f\approx0.02$. We find that the transverse voltage vanishes only in the directions of maximum symmetry of the square lattice: the [10] and [01] direction (parallel bias) and the [11] direction (diagonal bias). For orientations different than the symmetry directions, we find a finite transverse voltage which depends strongly on the angle φ of the current. We find that vortex motion is pinned in the [10] direction ($?=0$), meaning that the voltage response is insensitive to small changes in the orientation of the current near $?=0$. We call this phenomenon orientational pinning. This leads to a finite transverse critical current for a bias at $?=0$ and to a transverse voltage for a bias at $?\not=0$. On the other hand, for diagonal bias in the [11] direction the behavior is highly unstable against small variations of φ, leading to a rapid change from zero transverse voltage to a large transverse voltage within a few degrees. This last behavior is in good agreement with our measurements in arrays with a quasidiagonal current drive.
