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Zemma, E., J. Luzuriaga, and S. Babuin. "Analysis of motion of solid hydrogen tracer particles in oscillating superfluid flows." In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 012029. Vol. 568., 2014.
Abstract: We have developed a relatively simple cryostat which allows us to image turbulent flows in superfluid helium at temperatures below 2 K, using frozen H2 particles. We analyze the statistics of the velocities of these solid tracers, which follow the turbulent flow generated by oscillating bodies. We have also studied one of the oscillators working in air at room temperature, and traced the flow with solid talcum particles for comparison. Images were recorded by a digital camera at 240 frames per second, while frequencies of the oscillators are between 20 to 45 Hz. The flow is characterized by a modified Reynolds number ReÎ´ based on the viscous penetration depth Î´. Software in a dedicated particle tracking velocimetry code allows us to compute the trajectories and velocities of tens of thousands of particles. We have obtained the number of particles for equally spaced intervals of the velocity modulus. For the oscillators in the superfluid, the probability of finding particles at higher velocities has an exponential decay. Within our resolution the statistics in the superfluid for oscillating objects with sharp borders is largely independent of ReÎ´, while the logarithmic decay at low velocities seems faster than for high velocities for rounded objects. On the other hand, for data taken in air the result is closer to a classical Gaussian distribution of velocities.
Zemma, E., M. Tsubota, and J. Luzuriaga. "Possible visualization of a superfluid vortex loop attached to an oscillating Beam." Journal of Low Temperature Physics 179, no. 5 (2015): 310–319.
Abstract: Visualization using tracer particles is a relatively new tool available for the study of superfluid turbulence and flow, which is applied here to oscillating objects submerged in the liquid. We report observations of a structure seen in videos taken from outside a cryostat filled with superfluid helium at 2 K, which is possibly a vortex loop attached to an oscillator. The feature, which has the shape of an incomplete arch, is visualized due to the presence of solid H2 tracer particles and is attached to a beam oscillating at 38 Hz in the liquid. It has been recorded in videos taken at 240 frames per second, fast enough to take âˆ¼6 images per period. This makes it possible to follow the structure, and to see that it is not rigid. It moves with respect to the oscillator, and its displacement is in phase with the velocity of the moving beam. Analyzing the motion, we come to the conclusion that we may be observing a superfluid vortex attached to the beam and decorated by the hydrogen particles. An alternative model, considering a solid hydrogen filament, has also been analyzed, but the observed phase between the movement of the beam and the filamentary structure is better explained by the superfluid vortex hypothesis.