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Wuyts, B., Z. X. Gao, S. Libbrecht, M. Maenhoudt, E. Osquiguil, and Y. Bruynseraede. "Growth of particle-free YBa2Cu3O7 films by off-axis sputtering." Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications 203, no. 3-4 (1992): 235–239.
Abstract: The preparation of good YBa2Cu3O7 thin films is often hindered by the production of non-stoichiometric particles which degrade the superconducting properties of the layer. A systematic study of films prepared by off-axis single target magnetron sputtering shows that the presence of copper-rich particles dramatically decreases the critical current density but does not affect the critical temperature. The formation of these particles can be avoided by carefully adjusting the position of the substrate with respect to the target. Films without off-stoichiometric particles have excellent superconducting properties.