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del Corro, P. G., M. Imboden, D. J. Bishop, and H. Pastoriza. "Comb Drive Designs With Minimized Levitation." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 25, no. 6 (2016): 1025–1032.
Abstract: This paper presents two capacitive comb drive
designs for electrostatic actuation of MEMS with the aim to
eliminate the levitation effect often observed in such systems.
By placing a shield over the comb drive fingers, it is possible
to balance the electric field and suppress vertical forces while
maintaining the desired lateral motion. By optimizing the comb
geometry, we demonstrate that our approach is able to reduce the
levitation by an order of magnitude and unwanted coupling of
motion from out-of-plane to in-plane by a factor of 7 compared
with standard comb architectures fabricated using PolyMUMPs
technology, without the need of alternating comb finger polarities
or additional control electrodes. Levitation was reduced to
160 nm, for 3.6-Âµm lateral displacement at a driving voltage
of 80 V.
Ogando, K., N. La Forgia, J. J. Zárate, and H. Pastoriza. "Design and characterization of a fully compliant out-of-plane thermal actuator." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 183 (2012): 95–100.
Abstract: This paper presents the design and characterization of an out-of-plane thermal actuator. The design optimizes the vertical displacement by concentrating elastic deformations in localized hinges allowing a full thermal expansion of the actuator arms. Heating is provided by Joule dissipation in the actuator itself.
A testing device was fabricated using the Memscap PolyMUMPs process. Characterization of the sensor was performed by white light optical profilometry for varying electric biasing and different atmospheres.
The presented design has the advantage that the moving direction of the actuator can be determined by the relative location of the hinges.