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Decca, R. S., H. D. Drew, B. Maiorov, J. Guimpel, and E. J. Osquiguil. "Inducing superconductivity at a nanoscale: Photodoping with a near- field scanning optical microscope." Journal of Microscopy 194, no. 2-3 (1999): 407–411.
Abstract: The local modification of an insulating GdBa2Cu3O6.5 thin film, made superconducting by illumination with a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM), is reported. A 100-nm aperture NSOM probe acts as a sub- wavelength light source of wavelength ?(exc)=480-650 nm, locally generating photocarriers in an otherwise insulating GdBa2-Cu3O6.5 thin film. Of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, electrons are trapped in the crystallographic lattice, defining an electrostatic confining potential to enable the holes to move. Reflectance measurements at ? = 1.55 ?m at room temperature show that photocarriers can be induced and constrained to move on a ?? 200 nm scale for all investigated ?(exc). Photogenerated wires present a superconducting critical temperature T(c) = 12 K with a critical current density J(c) = 104 A cm-2. Exploiting the flexibility provided by photodoping through a NSOM probe, a junction was written by photodoping a wire with a narrow (? 50 nm) under-illuminated gap. The strong magnetic field modulation of the critical current provides a clear signature of the existence of a Josephson effect in the junction.